22.0 Some Bibliographical Terms
- A feature of a text, such as capitalization, spelling, word-division, or punctuation, as distinct from the words of a text. Compare Substantive.
Broadsheet / Broadside
- A large, and, strictly, unfolded and undivided sheet of paper, printed on only one side. In a collation it is represented as 1°.
Cancel / Cancellans
- A leaf printed for insertion in a printed book in place of one which be removed. The plurals are Cancels and Cancellantia. Sometimes whole Gatherings (q.v.) are replaced.
Cancelland / Cancellandum
- The term used to describe the leaf which has been removed. The plurals are Cancellands and Cancellanda.
- A preliminary estimate of the number of words in a manuscript, made in order to determine approximately the number of pages of text which, depending upon the type size, will result.
- The first word (or the first syllable(s) of the first word) of the next page of text, or, occasionally, the last syllable(s) of the final word on the current page of text, set by the compositor, below the last line and running to the right margin, when he has completed a page, as a guide to the arrangement of the pages (which were not yet paginated) in the forme. Also called 'Direction'. Their occurrence varies: sometimes on every page, sometimes only on versos, sometimes only between gatherings. They are virtually never used nowadays. They also occur in manuscripts, to help in the correct assembling of the leaves and gatherings.
- A four-sided metal frame in which the type for a page or pages of one forme is locked prior to its being placed on the press.
- A statement of the format of a book, of the number of gatherings, and of the number of leaves and pages in those gatherings. The term is also used to describe a detailed comparison of the text of two or more copies of a work, be they manuscript or printed.
- The inscription at the end of a manuscript, or the short text at the end of a printed book, which usually gives some or all of the following: the title of the work, the scribe's, or printer's name, the date and place of completion of the writing, or printing.
- A term used to describe two or more leaves which are, or were once, joined together. The word 'Conjunct' is used similarly.
- The design, made in laid paper, by a stitched wire pattern, added to the other half of the papermaker's mould, to identify the maker. The practice began in the l6th and l7th centuries when Watermarks (q.v.) were losing their original significance.
- The line, below the last line of text on a page, in which are to be found, in those books and pages which have them, the Signature (often near centre) and the Catchword (to the right) (qq.v.)
- 12° A sheet of paper folded, in one of several ways, and/or cut to produce a gathering of twelve leaves. Hence a book of sheets folded in that way -- and so with Folio, Octavo, Quarto (qq.v.).
- All the copies of a work printed from one setting of type, to which adjustments may have been made, and from which stereotypes or other mechanical copies can have been taken. It includes Impressions, Issues, Reimpositions, Reissues, and States (qq.v.).
- A copy of a title-page in which the typographical details of the original -- founts of type, capitals, line endings, etc -- are represented as faithfully as possible.
- The side of a sheet of hand-made paper which has been uppermost during the making. It takes its name from the felt, which is placed between each of the newly-made sheets to prevent their being squashed into a mush when the pressure of the press is applied to the post. Compare Mould Side.
Fol. 3 or f .3
(i) 2°: A sheet of paper folded once to produce two leaves.
(ii) A leaf (as above).
- The structure of a book, determined by discovering the number of times the constituent sheets (or half-sheets, etc.) have been folded.
(i) The pages of type, as locked into the chase, which print one side of a sheet.
(ii) The matter printed on the paper from that typesetting. There are two formes to all Gatherings
(q.v.) though parts of one, or parts of both of them, may be blank. They are: the inner (i), and the outer (o). The outer forme will always include, and in a folio will consist of, the first page and the last page in the gathering; and the inner, similarly, will include, and in a folio consist of, the second page and the penultimate page. These facts obviously do not apply to a Broadsheet
Fp. / Front
Gatherings / Quires
- Collections of leaves, ranging from a single leaf to several sheets, which are gathered together for stitching as a unit. See also Signatures.
- Printers in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries often produced books and pamphlets in half-sheets. Books in any format could be so set, from folio to octodecimo (18mo), and beyond. A full forme of type was set; it contained the usual number of pages, though those belonged to two consecutive Signatures (q.v.). The sheet was perfected by another Chase (q.v), containing the second forme of type; that is, for example, B(o) and C(o) would be printed together, and then perfected with the two inner formes. The sheet, when divided, gave one copy each of the consecutive signatures (in half-sheets), B & C. A second method was called work and turn: all the pages of an entire signature were set and imposed as one forme, with the inner-forme pages in one half of the Chase and the outer-forme pages in the other. An impression was taken; the sheet was turned about, and again put to the press. The outer forme was perfected with the inner, and the inner with the outer. In this way, two copies of one half-sheet signature were produced. A half-sheet of a folio is a single leaf; and a half-sheet of an octodecimo gives nine leaves; and so on. This method of setting has to be identified by (i) the number of leaves in the Gathering (q.v.); (ii) the direction of the Chain Lines (q.v.), if any; (iii) the frequency of occurrence in the printed work of the Watermark (q.v.), if any; and (iv) the general appearance and shape of the book. (See Gaskell's Figs. 48, 49; 52, 53; 58, 59.).
- The formal arrangement of type, at the head of the first page of text, in which the title is stated. Since, in books set from manuscript, this page is generally the first composed, the wording may differ from that used on the title-page.
- All copies of a forme, sheet, or book printed at one time from a setting of type (sometimes called a "printing").
- The statement(s), generally on the title-page or title-leaf, recording the city/cities of publication, the publishers' name(s) and address(es), the printer's name and address, and the date.
- Books printed in the 'cradle' of printing; that is, in most of Europe, or Incunabula before 1501.
- All the copies of that part of an edition identifiable by some typographical feature as a consciously planned publishing unit, e.g. sheets of the original printing bound up with a new title-page.
- Paper, generally hand-made, which has chain-lines, wire-lines, and watermarks. See also Wove Paper.
- Small, as distinct from capital, or upper-case, letters, (e.g., k l m n), so called because the types for them were kept in the lower part of the printer's case.
- Leaf or leaves; the basic unit of paper in a book, formed either by using printed but sheets; or, more frequently, by using folded and/or cut sheets of paper.
- The rectangular wooden-framed tray, broader than it is long, the base consisting of a mesh of wires, in which paper is made.
- The side of a hand-made sheet of paper, which has lain on, and received an impression from, the Chain Lines, Wire Lines and Watermark (qq.v.), which comprise the bed of the mould. In hand-made Wove Paper (q.v.) the sheet will receive a lighter impression from the diagonal wires of the bed. Compare Felt Side.
- A sheet of paper folded three times to produce eight leaves -- an octavo half-sheet has four leaves, and so on.
- Page/pages. A page is one side of a leaf.
- Preliminaries: the introductory (front) matter (title-leaf, preface, table of, etc.) before the beginning of the text of a book, usually paginated with roman numerals.
- Originally a symbol (+, *, etc.) but later usually an arabic number, generally found, in or below Figure(s) the Direction Line (q.v.), on a page that is without a signature. Press Figures are known to have been used in Great Britain from at least 1629 to 1866, but they are commonest in 18th-century British books. Though once thought to have indicated the press on which a forme was printed, they are now believed to indicate the pressman responsible for working that forme. It enabled the master printer (i) to know how much pay was due to whom and (ii) to assign responsibility for errors.
- A sheet of paper folded twice to produce four leaves.
r / recto
- In western books, the first (or right) side of a leaf as it occurs in a normal opening.
- The modification, within the chase, of the formes of type (by reducing, or increasing, the space between the pages of type), which together make up a book or pamphlet, so that they can be printed on either a larger or a smaller size of paper.
- The strip of type which is used either to heighten the aesthetic effect of, or to aid in the understanding of the words printed on, the title-page. The piece(s) used can vary greatly in length, shape, and size: some titles are enclosed in a double or single rule, as well as having the words of the title separated from the author's name, which, in turn, is divided from the volume number or edition statement, and/or the imprint. The varieties, and their names, may be seen in The Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors (Oxford. Reprinted with corrections, 1986), under the word rule [PE 1628 C54 1986--ROBAREF].
- The two lines of type, running across the head of two pages of an opening in a book, which together make up the title. A self-contained single line of type at the head of a page, as for instance in a dictionary, is called a headline.
- A unit of paper, as produced by the maker, or as cut to need. The size of a hand-made sheet is limited by the size of the mould, which is in turn dictated by the reach of a man's arms. (Whatman's 'Antiquarian' sheets (1773), measuring 53" x ", were made with 'The Contrivance', later known as 'The Bellows', an apparatus that enabled more than one man to work the mould). There is no such limit on machine-made paper.
- Signature: A term applied (i) to the printed symbol, generally a letter (either upper or lower case) accompanied, after the first leaf, by a figure (arabic or roman), which appears at the foot of the recto of the first few leaves of a folded sheet; and, (ii) by extension, to the sheet(s), or lesser gathering, itself. In signature D, the second leaf is (probably) signed, and always referred to, as D2. Signatures aided binders to collate books before binding to ensure that they were perfect, and can be similarly used by bibliographers, book collectors, etc.
- A description often applied to differences of detail in engravings or etchings, etc., and, in printed texts, to variations not large enough to constitute an Issue, or Impression, or Edition. These smaller differences, sometimes the result of press-correction, are also known as Variants. Modern bibliographers prefer to "state" to descriptions of individual sheets rather than entire books.
- A textual variation, generally concerning a word or words, which affects the meaning of a passage. Compare Accidental.
- tp.; tl. Title-page; title-leaf.
- Capital letters (e.g., K L M N), so called from their being kept in the upper part of the printer's case. See also Lower Case.
v / verso
- The second (or reverse) side of a leaf. Compare r / recto.
- Differences (usually comparatively small) found in the text when two or more copies of a piece of printed matter are compared, which are the result of either i) accidental, or (ii) deliberate, alterations made in the course of printing.
- The design made in a sheet of hand-made paper by a pattern in wire stitched to the centre of the wire mesh in one half of the mould. Originally used as a trademark for mill or area, watermarks subsequently often incorporated a name or initials. Still later, the Countermark (q.v.) was attached to the other half of the mould to carry the maker's name. Watermarks are generally to be found in the better laid papers, and sometimes in wove papers, whether they be made by hand or machine.
- The closely-set wires forming the base of a mould, used in the making of paper by hand, which provide a bed solid enough to retain the embryonic sheet, but open enough to allow the water to drain through. They run horizontally in the mould, whereas the chain lines run vertically. Both sets of wires -- Chain Lines and Wire Lines -- leave an impression in one side of the sheet of paper.
(i) Paper made by hand in a single- or double-faced wove mould. There the wires of the bed of the mould were affixed diagonally and were of the same size, unlike the right-angled disposition of the (larger) chain lines to the (smaller) wire lines in a mould for Laid Paper
(q.v) Wove paper was first made in the eighteenth century, probably about 1754 or 1755 by James Whatman the Elder, for the use, in his Virgil, in 1757, of John Baskerville;
(ii) the term is now applied principally to machine-made paper. Top of Page
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