23.0 Some Bibliographical Symbols1°
2° or Folio
- An unfolded sheet, or broadsheet.
4° or 4to
- A sheet folded once, with leaves half its original size.
8° or 8vo
- A sheet folded twice, with leaves a quarter of its original size.
12° or 12mo
- A sheet folded thrice, with leaves one-eighth of its original size.
- Duodecimo--as noted above, there is more than one way of folding the sheet to produce the 12 leaves of a duodecimo.
16° or 16mo
24° or 24mo
32° or 32mo
64° or 64mo
- A gathering, signed D, with two leaves;
- the second leaf of such a gathering;
- the second leaf of a gathering signed DD, Dd, or, very occasionally, '2D'. It is usually only in the later alphabets -- e.g., '6D' -- that an arabic numeral is used with a single upper-case letter, instead of six (or however many it may be) upper-case letters, or upper-case and lower-case letters.
- The third leaf of a gathering; or, if so specified, the third leaf in a series of gatherings -- e.g., $3 A-G.
- Greek letter 'pi'; used for an unsigned leaf (or leaves) or gathering(s) in the Prelims. (q.v.) of a book; similarly used to distinguish the letters of a subordinate alphabet of signatures in the prelims., which are later used again in the main body of the text.
- Greek letter 'chi'; used to refer to an unsigned leaf (or leaves) or gathering(s) in the body of a book; or, as sometimes happens, for the second of two identically signed leaves or gatherings, when it is clear that the printer has not simply omitted a letter of the alphabet in the signing.
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